Introduction "A Small, Good Thing," an award-winning story by American short story writer and poet, Raymond Carverwas published in Carver's third major collection of stories, Cathedral, in In his first two collections, Carver had established himself as a new and compelling voice in American literature and a master of the short story form.
Instead, what makes it effective is the approach to programming, a philosophy of using the computer. Many UNIX programs do quite trivial things in isolation, but, combined with other programs, become general and useful tools.
The authors further write that their goal for this book is "to communicate the UNIX programming philosophy. In this paper, they criticize the accretion of program options and features found in some newer Unix systems such as 4.
This style has A small good thing by raymond called the use of software tools, and depends more on how the programs fit into the programming environment and how they can be used with other programs than on how they are designed internally.
The authors contrast Unix tools such as catwith larger program suites used by other systems. Other commands are used for other functions.
For example, there are separate commands for file system tasks like renaming files, deleting them, or telling how big they are. Other systems instead lump these into a single "file system" command with an internal structure and command language of its own.
That approach is not necessarily worse or better, but it is certainly against the UNIX philosophy. Write programs that do one thing and do it well. Write programs to work together. Write programs to handle text streamsbecause that is a universal interface. Beyond these statements, he has also emphasized simplicity and minimalism in Unix programming: Conversely, McIlroy has criticized modern Linux as having software bloatremarking that, "adoring admirers have fed Linux goodies to a disheartening state of obesity.
Why is there this option? Instead of adding an option, think about what was forcing you to add that option.
Patrick Volkerdingthe project lead of Slackware Linuxinvoked this design principle in a criticism of the systemd architecture, stating that, "attempting to control services, sockets, devices, mounts, etc.
This rule aims to save time on debugging code that is complex, long, and unreadable. Rule of Clarity[ edit ] Developers should write programs as if the most important communication is to the developer who will read and maintain the program, rather than the computer.
This rule aims to make code as readable and comprehensible as possible for whoever works on the code in the future. Rule of Composition[ edit ] Developers should write programs that can communicate easily with other programs.
This rule aims to allow developers to break down projects into small, simple programs rather than overly complex monolithic programs. Rule of Separation [ edit ] Developers should separate the mechanisms of the programs from the policies of the programs; one method is to divide a program into a front-end interface and a back-end engine with which that interface communicates.
This rule aims to prevent bug introduction by allowing policies to be changed with minimum likelihood of destabilizing operational mechanisms.
Rule of Simplicity[ edit ] Developers should design for simplicity by looking for ways to break up program systems into small, straightforward cooperating pieces. Rule of Parsimony[ edit ] Developers should avoid writing big programs.
Smaller programs are not only easier to write, optimize, and maintain; they are easier to delete when deprecated. Rule of Transparency[ edit ] Developers should design for visibility and discoverability by writing in a way that their thought process can lucidly be seen by future developers working on the project and using input and output formats that make it easy to identify valid input and correct output.
This rule aims to reduce debugging time and extend the lifespan of programs. Rule of Robustness[ edit ] Developers should design robust programs by designing for transparency and discoverability, because code that is easy to understand is easier to stress test for unexpected conditions that may not be foreseeable in complex programs.
This rule aims to help developers build robust, reliable products.
Rule of Representation[ edit ] Developers should choose to make data more complicated rather than the procedural logic of the program when faced with the choice, because it is easier for humans to understand complex data compared with complex logic. This rule aims to make programs more readable for any developer working on the project, which allows the program to be maintained.
This rule aims to encourage developers to build intuitive products that are easy to use. Rule of Silence[ edit ] Developers should design programs so that they do not print unnecessary output. This rule aims to prevent incorrect output from a program from becoming an input and corrupting the output of other code undetected.
Rule of Economy[ edit ] Developers should value developer time over machine time, because machine cycles today are relatively inexpensive compared to prices in the s.
This rule aims to reduce development costs of projects. Rule of Generation [ edit ] Developers should avoid writing code by hand and instead write abstract high-level programs that generate code.
This rule aims to reduce human errors and save time. Rule of Optimization [ edit ] Developers should prototype software before polishing it. This rule aims to prevent developers from spending too much time for marginal gains.Read "Fetching Raymond," a short story from John Grisham's new book Ford County.
Several decades before he became the father of industrial design, Raymond Loewy boarded the SS France in to sail across the Atlantic from his devastated continent to the United States. The. Bernard Cormier owner manager and webmaster of Cormier Equipment.
With over 35 years of experience in small engines Bernard makes sure the most popular parts are available on this site. This Web site is dedicated to the wonderful world of the short story and to all who enjoy reading shorts stories as I do. I will try to add a few short stories every month. An index of geographical features in the map of Triagia.
The content of this index was derived from the following sources: works by Raymond E. Feist (including novels*and computer games), Midkemia Press Publications, comments made by Raymond E. Feist and Steve Abrams on the Feistfan-L mailing list, and personal correspondences.
Every . Cathedral [Raymond Carver] on nationwidesecretarial.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Raymond Carver’s third collection of stories, a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize, including the canonical titular story about blindness and learning to enter the very different world of another.
These twelve stories mark a turning point in Carver’s work and “overflow with .