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For example in a combustion reaction with carbon in air, carbon gains an oxygen molecule: Oxidation reactions can be used to cause explosions due to the fact that these reactions can produce large volumes of products from a relatively small volume of reactants. The products mainly consist of hot gasses including CO2 and SO2.
The increase of gaseous products leads to an increase in pressure. In an open space the gasses can freely escape, however in a confined container, the increase in pressure leads to an explosion.
The rate of oxidation depends on the amount of oxygen is present in the reaction. To speed up an oxidation reaction the oxygen must be present within the reactants, in the form of an oxidiser such as Potassium Nitrate KNO3.
The oxidiser contains the oxygen needed for the reaction, instead of taking oxygen from the air, which means the reaction would be slower; this means the reaction can take place within a fraction of a second.
During the First World War British shells had to be rationed, this is because of a lack propanone used in making cordite, the main propellant in artillery shells.
Before the war the British had to import propanone, as they had no means of producing their own. At first Britain relied on imports from the US, with German U-boats patrolling the Atlantic it was difficult to get sufficient amounts of propanone.
An alternative had to be found. Chaim Weizmann, a Russian immigrant living in England came up with a process of making propanone from bacterial fermentation of the starch in maize, bacteria break down the starch in the maize to produce Propanone and Butanol: Shipping maize from the US eventually became too difficult and also the Americans needed it for the war effort, to feed soldiers and the public.
A replacement was needed, Weizmann was requested to modify his technique to use conkers instead as the supply of conkers was steady and abundant. The earliest known explosive was potassium nitrate KNO3 this was mixed with sulphur and charcoal. The black powder, as it was known, was the main propellant in military artillery and weapons from the 14th to 19th century.
The next development was cellulose nitrate, accidentally formed by mixing sulphuric and nitric acid with cellulose: Nitro-glycerine was a natural by-product of soap making, it differed from nitro cellulose in that instead of being glucose based it was fat based.
It is formed by reacting Glycerine with Nitric acid: Alfred Nobel was the first man to make a safe high explosive by mixing nitro-glycerine with a clay like substance to make a paste, which could be moulded in to shapes.
This became known as dynamite; Nobel perfected the formula with different mixtures until it was perfected. An explosive reaction must take place very quickly, be exothermic and as many of the products formed must be gasses. Low explosives explode rapidly, these include smokeless powders.
Reactions with High explosives take place much faster than low explosives, give out more heat and have higher increases in pressure: High explosives manage to create more hot gasses in a quicker time, this means they are more explosive than Low explosives.
A molecule of TNT an example of a high explosive.Chemistry open Paper Essays: Over , Chemistry open Paper Essays, Chemistry open Paper Term Papers, Chemistry open Paper Research Paper, Book Reports. ESSAYS, term and research papers available for UNLIMITED access.
Chemistry open book paper Photochemical smog is a mixture of primary and secondary pollutants; primary pollutants are those released directly into the atmosphere from human activities such as . An oxidation reaction is where an element or compound burns in air thus reacting with oxygen.
For example in a combustion reaction with carbon in air, carbon gains an oxygen molecule:C(s) + O2(g) CO2(g)The carbon has now gained oxygen and become carbon dioxide; also the oxidation state has risen from 0 to +nationwidesecretarial.comion reactions can.
How To Write Chemistry Essay. March 10, by admin Basic Essay Writing Tips. Facebook 0 Twitter 0 Google+ 0 Viber WhatsApp. Chemistry Essay Writing Guide. If written as a research paper, a chemistry essay should articulate and make use of the basic scientific structures and formats of writing chemistry essays.
Students should hence be.
Free Chemistry papers, essays, and research papers. Chemistry of Taste and Smell - The human body does amazing things on a daily basis. Chemistry essays / Open Book Paper Chemistry Open Book Paper Atomic spectroscopy is a chemical analysis technique and it is used to identify what elements are in a compound.
It uses the idea of a photon being absorbed or emitted whenever an electron changes from one energy level to another.