Power and authority shape spoken language essay

Visual Literacy Essay Visual Literacy Essay An increasing focus on visual communication— through intersecting developments in transnational media, the Internet, television, and film—makes critical analysis and comprehension of the image world a high priority for educators. Visual literacy traces its roots to linguistic literacy, based on the idea that educating people to understand the codes and contexts of language leads to an ability to read and comprehend written and spoken verbal communication. Some theorists equate the linguistic text and the visual quite directly, whereas others seek an alternate discursive space for visual literacy.

Power and authority shape spoken language essay

Linguistic background[ edit ] While Demotic was the vernacular of the Greeks, Katharevousa was an archaic and formal variant that was pronounced like Modern Greek, but it adopted both lexical and morphological features of Ancient Greek that the spoken language had lost over time.

Strict Katharevousa used the ancient dative casemany participles and various additional tenses and conjugational patterns of verbs. Katharevousa contained various pronunciations that did not fit the Modern Greek phonological system. While the vernacular mostly consisted of simple sentences, katharevousa often applied ancient Greek syntax to form long and complex sentences, which would give the impression of educated speech.

The proponents of the formal language discarded many popular Greek words that the Greek language had borrowed from other languages over time, mainly from TurkishLatin and Italianand replaced them either with ancient Greek words or with neologisms. These differences meant that katharevousa was only partly intelligible to a Greek without higher education.

There was no single Katharevousa. Instead, proponents of the formal language put forward ever-changing variants that were never standardized. These variants approached Attic Greek in extreme cases, but they could also be closer to spoken Greek and could be understood by the majority of the people.

Sample text[ edit ] The Greek language question concerns the co-existence of two, in extreme cases, completely different forms of Greek that greatly exceeds the usual stylistic difference between written and spoken language, as in the following text: Your work, which was submitted in manuscript to the Holy Synod under the title "Life of Jesus Christ", was sent by it [the Holy Synod] to Methodios, its President Archbishop of Syros, Tinos and Andros, so that he may report on whether the content of this work accords with the traditions of the Orthodox Church.

Historical development[ edit ] — Pre-revolutionary discussions[ edit ] The discussion began at the end of the 18th century, as Eugenios Voulgaris —Lambros PhotiadisSt. The phanariots were a group of conservative and educated nobles who supported the archaic language and were the most important critics of the language of the people.

This discussion later became crucial when it was to be decided which one should be the single language of the modern Greek state, which was yet to be founded. Adamantios Korais — influenced the further discussion considerably.

While being a supporter of the language of the people, Korais sought to cleanse it from elements that he considered to be too "vulgar" and eventually invented katharevousa. After a prolonged War of Independencethe modern Greek state was founded in ; the first capital was Nafplio and, from onwards, Athens.

Power and authority shape spoken language essay

What was perhaps intended to be a temporary stop-gap, however, eventually became firmly entrenched as the established form of Greek in official use. In fact, the only mention of language in legislation appeared in the educational laws of andwhich established that Ancient Greek not katharevousa should continue to be the only language of the readers and textbooks used in schools.

There was also no official body to make such decisions: Much of his writing on the language question was published in the prefaces to his volume Hellenic Library series of ancient Greek texts, and they were modestly titled "Impromptu thoughts on Greek culture and language". Most of his other linguistic studies were issued as five collected volumes under the even more self-effacing title Atakta, a "jumbled miscellany".

Two of his ideas in particular had widespread influence: For example, the newly formed Royal Hellenic Navy introduced the use of Ancient Greek nautical terms although civilian seamen continued to use the traditional ones, many of them loanwords from Italian, owing to the centuries-old maritime influence of Venice and Genoa, and with borrowings from the Italian-based Mediterranean Lingua Franca of the Levantine ports.

Power and authority shape spoken language essay

Quite apart from its supposed inadequacy and vulgarity, there had been another political and diplomatic reason to rule out using demotic as the state language. In the population of the new Greek state was about ,; but outside the borders were at least two million more Greek-speakers mainly in the Ionian Islands and the remaining provinces of the Ottoman Empireand millions more members of the Greek Orthodox Church who worshiped in Ancient Greek and shared much Greek culture even though they spoke AlbanianBulgarian or Aromanian at home.

At this early stage of the Greek state, it was far from clear how large its borders would ultimately be and whether citizenship would depend on language, religion, or simple residence. Korais had believed, "Because of their enslavement to foreign rulers, the Modern Greeks were incapable of thinking properly and thus of speaking properly; the correction of language would, however, lead to the correction of both thought and behaviour.

In he published the first dictionary of spoken demotic to be compiled by a Greek for almost two centuries: After all, demotic speakers had been exposed to Ancient Greek in church and school for centuries without any noticeable trickle down; the languages had simply grown too far apart for any such diffusion to be possible.

As Korais had written in"Root out from the language the weeds of vulgarity, yet not all at once by the forkful, but gradually with the hand, one after the other; sow Hellenic seeds in it, but these too by the handful and not by the sackful.

You will be surprised how in a short while your words and phrases have passed from the book into the mouths of the people. He expressed the hope that the spoken and written language would eventually become one and the same, arguing that the spoken language could not be properly cultivated if it was so widely separated from the written variety that mutual influence between the two became impossible.

In its practical concern for the linguistic welfare of the whole population, it "represented the triumph of Enlightenment intellectuals over the Ancient Greek resurrection proposal". In part, it was driven by a search for internal correctness or at least consistency, [c] and in part by a feeling that since Ancient Greek was the ideal language, any approach to it could only be regarded as progress.Language and Social Behavior Language pervades social life.

It is the principal vehicle for the transmission of languages that are not spoken, such as sign languages used by the hearing-impaired, and written language. Finally, of course, meaning is hardly a self-defining term. Mother Tongue, by Amy Tan.

I am not a scholar of English or literature. I cannot give you much more than personal opinions on the English language and its variations in this country or others. ABOUT US. We value excellent academic writing and strive to provide outstanding essay writing services each and every time you place an order.

We write essays, research papers, term papers, course works, reviews, theses and more, so our primary mission is to help you succeed academically. The Sublime: From A Poet's Glossary - The word "sublime" derives from the Latin sublimus, a combination of sub (up to) and limen (lintel, the top piece of a door) and suggests nobility and majesty, the ultimate height, a soaring grandeur, as in a skyscraper or a mountain, or as in a dizzying feeling, a heroic deed, a spiritual attainment, a poetic expression.

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Arthur Miller used the actual language of the 17 C. to make the play ostensibly authentic. Though his intent may be to expose the damage done by hysterical and misguided authority figures to hapless victims during the McCarthy era of America in the ’s, he sets his scene in the time of the witch hunts of the ’s to gain perspective and remoteness; abuse of power is a perennial issue.

Rather I am referring to the fact that a number of social institutions, such as the English language or even the institution of the university, are not defined—normatively speaking—in terms of justice, but rather by some other moral value(s), e.g. truth. Communication systems, such as human languages, are arguably defined in part in terms.

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