Selective breeding

The first bettas being able to reach a degree spread were bred by Guy Delaval. In their breeding program they were aiming for vital fish which where able to hold their finnage and balance throughout their lives. These selection procedures became less strict as the halfmoon trait became more and more spread around the world. Many breeders wanted to get quick results and started breeding their fish at younger ages paying less attention to these selection procedures.

Selective breeding

Marijuana Botany – Cannabis Breeding and Genetics

GMOs in agriculture Genetically modified GM foods were first approved for human consumption in the United States inand by —15 about 90 percent of the corncottonand soybeans planted in the United States were GM. By the end ofGM crops covered more than 10 million square kilometres 3.


The majority of GM crops were grown in the Americas. Genetically modified corn maize. For example, the application of wide-spectrum insecticides declined in many areas growing plants, such as potatoescotton, and corn, that were endowed with a Selective breeding from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, which produces a natural insecticide called Bt toxin.

Field studies conducted in India in which Bt cotton was compared with non-Bt cotton demonstrated a 30—80 percent increase in yield from the GM crop.

Studies of Bt cotton production in Arizona, U. In China, where farmers first gained access to Bt cotton inthe GM crop was initially successful. Farmers who had planted Bt cotton reduced their pesticide use by 50—80 percent and increased their earnings by as much as 36 percent.

Byhowever, farmers who had been growing Bt cotton for several years found that the benefits of the crop eroded as populations of secondary insect pests, such as mirids, increased.

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Farmers once again were forced to spray broad-spectrum pesticides throughout the growing seasonsuch that the average revenue for Bt growers was 8 percent lower than that of farmers who grew conventional cotton.

Meanwhile, Bt resistance had also evolved in field populations of major cotton pests, including both the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera and the pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella. Other GM plants were engineered for resistance to a specific chemical herbiciderather than resistance to a natural predator or pest.

Herbicide-resistant crops HRC have been available since the mids; these crops enable effective chemical control of weedssince only the HRC plants can survive in fields treated with the corresponding herbicide. Many HRCs are resistant to glyphosate Roundupenabling liberal application of the chemical, which is highly effective against weeds.

Such crops have been especially valuable for no-till farming, which helps prevent soil erosion.

Selective breeding

However, because HRCs encourage increased application of chemicals to the soil, rather than decreased application, they remain controversial with regard to their environmental impact. In addition, in order to reduce the risk of selecting for herbicide-resistant weeds, farmers must use multiple diverse weed-management strategies.

Golden rice was created by modifying the rice genome to include a gene from the daffodil Narcissus pseudonarcissus that produces an enzyme known as phyotene synthase and a gene from the bacterium Erwinia uredovora that produces an enzyme called phyotene desaturase.

The introduction of these genes enabled beta-carotene, which is converted to vitamin A in the human liver, to accumulate in the rice endosperm —the edible part of the rice plant—thereby increasing the amount of beta-carotene available for vitamin A synthesis in the body.

In the same researchers who developed the original golden rice plant improved upon the model, generating golden rice 2, which showed a fold increase in carotenoid production. Another form of modified rice was generated to help combat iron deficiency, which impacts close to 30 percent of the world population.

This GM crop was engineered by introducing into the rice genome a ferritin gene from the common beanPhaseolus vulgaris, that produces a protein capable of binding iron, as well as a gene from the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus that produces an enzyme capable of digesting compounds that increase iron bioavailability via digestion of phytate an inhibitor of iron absorption.

The iron-fortified GM rice was engineered to overexpress an existing rice gene that produces a cysteine-rich metallothioneinlike metal-binding protein that enhances iron absorption.

A variety of other crops modified to endure the weather extremes common in other parts of the globe are also in production. Page 1 of 2.Activity 1: Breeding Bunnies In this activity, you will examine natural selection in a small population of wild rabbits.

Evolution, on a genetic level, is a change in the frequency of alleles in a.

Make any video your lesson. In the same way that inbreeding among human populations can increase the frequency of normally rare genes that cause diseases, the selective breeding that created the hundreds of modern dog breeds. Selective breeding was established as a scientific practice by Robert Bakewell during the British Agricultural Revolution in the 18th century. Arguably, his most important breeding program was with sheep. Using native stock, he was able to quickly select for large, yet fine-boned sheep, with long, lustrous wool.

At Mad River we strive to breed dogs of superior type with stable temperaments. We are breeders of the rare Italian Mastiff known as the Cane Corso. Selective Breeding. Selective breeding is evolution by human selection. As nineteenth-century British naturalist Charles Darwin noted in Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication, selective breeding may be methodical or unconscious.

Methodical selection is oriented toward a predetermined standard, whereas unconscious selection .

Current Puppies

Captive breeding is the process of maintaining plants or animals in controlled environments, such as wildlife reserves, zoos, botanic gardens, and other conservation facilities. It is sometimes employed to help species that are being threatened by human activities such as habitat loss, fragmentation, over hunting or fishing, pollution, predation, disease, and parasitism.

Why are carrots orange? They were bred orange in The Netherlands during the 17th century from the older white and purple stock (that are now back in fashion as “heritage” varieties) to show.

Selective breeding was established as a scientific practice by Robert Bakewell during the British Agricultural Revolution in the 18th century. Arguably, his most important breeding program was with sheep.

Using native stock, he was able to quickly select for large, yet fine-boned sheep, with long, lustrous wool.

Animal breeding |