By Christian Jarrett Controversy is essential to scientific progress. Please use the comments to have your say on these controversies, or to highlight provocative studies that you think should have made it onto our list. Zimbardo interpreted the events as showing that certain situations inevitably turn good people bad, a theoretical stance he later applied to the acts of abuse that occurred at the Abu Ghraib prison camp in Iraq from to This situationist interpretation has been challengedmost forcibly by the British psychologists Steve Reicher and Alex Haslam.
In the past, thousands of experiments were conducted without regard to safety or ethics, often with deadly consequences. Many were performed because public safety or the imminent threat to the nation was deemed paramount over individual rights.
Others resulted from the misapplication of junk science, shortsightedness, or political greed. Such unethical research programs are still making headlines today, as the federal and state governments apologize and grant compensation to victims.
Yet, despite our progress in reining in unethical testing practices, some of the below research programs still use questionable methods. That said, here Unethical research 10 of the darkest chapters in U.
Animal Testing Rabbit after Draize test, which measures toxicity of cosmetics; Photo credit: PETA Testing on animals has long been a highly controversial topic. It is also quite common, most notably in the cosmetics and the pharmaceutical industries.
Rats and mice are most commonly used, but researchers also test products on dogs, cats, pigs, sheep, rabbits, monkeys and other animals. Although many people oppose animal testing under any circumstances, polls have shown more than half of U.
In many cases, however, the ethical boundaries are obliterated and the animals suffer at the expense of research. Although animal testing will probably always be used in some fashion, especially in the case of life-saving drugs, computer simulations may one day make such testing a rarity.
Entomological Warfare The U. Notable experiments were conducted in Florida, and during Operation Big Buzz in Georgia, when 1 million uninfected mosquitoes were released and studied to gauge dispersal patterns. You can certainly oppose the intent of this testing, but still appreciate the clever code names for these operations, such as the test in which fleas were released, known as Operation Big Itch.
Overseas Drug Trials Number of clinical drug tests reported in each country since ; Credit: Those are just the studies that have been reported; countless more go unreported.
Most such tests are conducted under strict ethical standards, but the very reason companies have moved so much testing overseas poorly educated citizens, no fear of litigation in the event of problemsmakes them attractive to researchers looking to cut ethical corners, or test high-risk drugs.
In one well-known case, 49 babies in New Delhi died while testing new high blood pressure drugs. Bellevue Electroshock Experiments Pychotron used for administering electroconvulsive therapy; Paul Hermans Now a rarity in use for psychiatric treatment, electroshock therapy was once seen as a panacea for mental illness.
To this end, electroconvulsive therapy was carried out for a variety of treatments, most notably for autism and schizophrenia. Beginning inDr. Lauretta Bender experimented with electroshock therapy on as many as children, some as young as 3 years of age. Statesville Penitentiary Malaria Study Hundreds of prisoners were exposed to malaria at an Illinois prison in the s; Andrew Bardwell Starting in Marchprisoners at the Illinois State Penitentiary in Statesville were deliberately infected with malaria via mosquito exposure.
Diseases such as malaria kill more soldiers during wartime than combat, and the study sought to test new drugs against the scourge. Although prisoners consented to participate in the trials, one can argue that even voluntary testing on the incarcerated is coercive by nature.
In fact, defendants at the infamous Nazi Nuremburg Trials used the Statesville malaria research to justify their own barbaric experiments in the concentration camps. Revealed by the U. Usually associated with Hitler and Nazi Germany, the failed concept of eugenics actually got its start in the U.
This was a total misapplication of genetics and Darwinian evolution, which states that survival is selected for over vast scales of time.
Many of those victimized in this campaign were merely poor, uneducated, or caught up in the criminal system of the day. During the Cold War, the U. These ranged from exposing troops to atomic detonations, to feeding radiated foods to conscientious objectors or the mentally ill and even the repeated insertion of radium rods into the nostrils of test subjects.
Many such experiments were conducted even after the establishment of the Nuremberg Code banned such practices following World War II.
The imminent threat of a nuclear war was seen by many to supersede the individual rights of the few, much as the fight against the threat of terrorism today often clashes with individual rights and privacy.Unethical research is a concept inevitably relative to accepted views concerning research's ethical requirements.
For Claude Bernard, an early French exponent of the scientific method in medicine who felt that the principle underlying medical morality requires that persons not be harmed, paradigm. unethical research. Experiments that contravene ethical norms, such as the protection of research participants, the treatment of research animals, patient confidentiality, consent to take part or withdraw from a study or informing participants about the nature of the research.
The research is controversial not just because it seems so unethical, but also because the results have tended to be reported in an inaccurate and overly simplified way.
Basically, research must follow all regulations given, and also anticipate possible ethical problems in their research. Competition is an important factor in research, and may be both a good thing and a bad thing. The efforts of AHRP to hold the medical research community and government administrators accountable for unethical exploitation of vulnerable children in medical experiments conducted in violation of federal regulations. Despite the unethical experiment, Zimbardo is still a working psychologist today. He was even honored by the American Psychological Association with a Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the.
Many textbooks claim the study shows how fears are easily conditioned and generalised to similar stimuli; they say that after being conditioned to fear a white rat, Little. UNETHICAL CONDUCTHe lamented that it was the third time Murang'a MCAs are said to have engaged in fighting and unethical conduct, following other two fights at a Kiambu hotel and inside the clerk's office.
Jul 13, · The national media and Congress focus on unethical research practices with human subjects, including the Tuskegee study. Congress passes the National Research Act, which authorizes federal agencies to develop human research regulations, e.g. 45 CFR 46, 21 CFR 50,54, Unethical research is a concept inevitably relative to accepted views concerning research's ethical requirements.
For Claude Bernard, an early French exponent of the scientific method in medicine who felt that the principle underlying medical morality requires that persons not be harmed, paradigm.