Chemical Weapons - Greek Fire Incendiary devices were standard weapons of war. Wooden defences always needed protection from burning. Wet animal hides were highly effective against burning arrows so military engineers dedicated themselves to finding ways of ensuring that fires burned as long and as strongly as necessary to catch. All sorts of chemicals could be used for this purpose - petroleum, sulphur, quicklime and tar barrels for example.
Rome was a city of ancient ruins, and the Papal States were loosely administered, and vulnerable to external interference such as that of France, and later Spain. In the south, Sicily had for some time been under foreign domination, by the Arabs and then the Normans.
Sicily had prospered for years during the Emirate of Sicily and later for two centuries during the Norman Kingdom and the Hohenstaufen Kingdombut had declined by the late Middle Ages. In contrast, Northern and Central Italy had become far more prosperous, and it has been calculated that the region was among the richest of Europe.
The Crusades had built lasting trade links to the Levantand the Fourth Crusade had done much to destroy the Byzantine Roman Empire as a commercial rival to the Venetians and Genoese. The main trade routes from the east passed through the Byzantine Empire or the Arab lands and onward to the ports of GenoaPisaand Venice.
Luxury goods bought in the Levant, such as spices, dyes, and silks were imported to Italy and then resold throughout Europe. Moreover, the inland city-states profited from the rich agricultural land of the Po valley.
From France, Germany, and the Low Countries, through the medium of the Champagne fairsland and river trade routes brought Warfare during the renaissance such as woolwheatand precious metals into the region.
Just as the turmoil of the Later Middle Ages had cleared the way for sweeping economic, cultural, and technological changes in Western Europe, it likewise produced significant political changes that led to the emergence of a new . Classical scholarship, the study, in all its aspects, of ancient Greece and nationwidesecretarial.com continental Europe the field is known as “classical philology,” but the use, in some circles, of “philology” to denote the study of language and literature—the result of abbreviating the 19th-century “comparative philology”—has lent an unfortunate ambiguity to the term. Chain Mail. Mail or chain mail is a type of armour consisting of small metal rings linked together in a pattern to form a mesh.
The extensive trade that stretched from Egypt to the Baltic generated substantial surpluses that allowed significant investment in mining and agriculture. Thus, while northern Italy was not richer in resources than many other parts of Europe, the level of development, stimulated by trade, allowed it to prosper.
In particular, Florence became one of the wealthiest of the cities of Northern Italy, mainly due to its woolen textile production, developed under the supervision of its dominant trade guildthe Arte della Lana. Wool was imported from Northern Europe and in the 16th century from Spain  and together with dyes from the east were used to make high quality textiles.
The Italian trade routes that covered the Mediterranean and beyond were also major conduits of culture and knowledge. The recovery of lost Greek classics and, to a lesser extent, Arab advancements on them following the Crusader conquest of the Byzantine heartlandsrevitalized medieval philosophy in the Renaissance of the 12th centuryjust as the refugee Byzantine scholars who migrated to Italy during and following the Turkish conquest of the Byzantines between the 12th and 15th centuries were important in sparking the new linguistic studies of the Renaissance, in newly created academies in Florence and Venice.
Humanist scholars searched monastic libraries for ancient manuscripts and recovered Tacitus and other Latin authors. The rediscovery of Vitruvius meant that the architectural principles of Antiquity could be observed once more, and Renaissance artists were encouraged, in the atmosphere of humanist optimism, to excel the achievements of the Ancients, like Apellesof whom they read.
Thirteenth-century[ edit ] In the 13th century, much of Europe experienced strong economic growth. The trade routes of the Italian states linked with those of established Mediterranean ports and eventually the Hanseatic League of the Baltic and northern regions of Europe to create a network economy in Europe for the first time since the 4th century.
The city-states of Italy expanded greatly during this period and grew in power to become de facto fully independent of the Holy Roman Empire ; apart from the Kingdom of Naplesoutside powers kept their armies out of Italy.
During this period, the modern commercial infrastructure developed, with double-entry book-keepingjoint stock companiesan international banking system, a systematized foreign exchange marketinsuranceand government debt.
The new mercantile governing class, who gained their position through financial skill, adapted to their purposes the feudal aristocratic model that had dominated Europe in the Middle Ages. A feature of the High Middle Ages in Northern Italy was the rise of the urban communes which had broken from the control by bishops and local counts.
In much of the region, the landed nobility was poorer than the urban patriarchs in the High Medieval money economy whose inflationary rise left land-holding aristocrats impoverished. The increase in trade during the early Renaissance enhanced these characteristics.
The decline of feudalism and the rise of cities influenced each other; for example, the demand for luxury goods led to an increase in trade, which led to greater numbers of tradesmen becoming wealthy, who, in turn, demanded more luxury goods.
This change also gave the merchants almost complete control of the governments of the Italian city-states, again enhancing trade.
One of the most important effects of this political control was security. Those that grew extremely wealthy in a feudal state ran constant risk of running afoul of the monarchy and having their lands confiscated, as famously occurred to Jacques Coeur in France.
The northern states also kept many medieval laws that severely hampered commerce, such as those against usuryand prohibitions on trading with non-Christians.Chain Mail. Mail or chain mail is a type of armour consisting of small metal rings linked together in a pattern to form a mesh.
Chain Mail. Mail or chain mail is a type of armour consisting of small metal rings linked together in a pattern to form a mesh. The Renaissance, also known as "Rinascimento" (in Italian), was an influential cultural movement that brought about a period of scientific revolution and artistic transformation at the dawn of modern history in nationwidesecretarial.com marks the transitional period between the end of the Middle Ages and the start of the Modern Age.
The Renaissance is usually . The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the fourteenth century to about , marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe..
The word renaissance in French, (rinascimento in Italian) literally . Weapons and Warfare in Renaissance Europe explores the history of gunpowder in Europe from the thirteenth century, when it was first imported from China, to the sixteenth century, as firearms became central to the conduct of war.
Bridging the fields of military history and the history of technology―and challenging past assumptions about . Social and Economic Changes During the Renaissance. Cities grew and prospered during the Renaissance and rulers learned to tax the people. Trade grew between cities/states and other countries.